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Heera Punjabi besan made from ground Chana dal, a legume otherwise known as chickpeas. It is also known as gram flour, garbanzo flour, or besan. Used in many countries, it is a staple ingredient in Indian and Bangladeshi cuisines, and, in the form of a paste with water or yoghurt, a popular facial exfoliant in the Indian Subcontinent. Moreover, when mixed with an equal proportion of water, can be used as an egg-replacer in vegan cooking. Gram flour contains a high proportion of carbohydrates but no gluten. Despite this, in comparison to other flours, it has a relatively high proportion of protein.
In other parts of South and Southeast Asia the flour is used to make bonda, pakoras, papadums, onion bhajis, and Burmese tofu. It is used in Italian cuisine to make farinata and in French cuisine to make socca. If parboiled potatoes are rolled in the flour prior to roasting they take on a golden colour and a crisp texture.